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Mortality After Release from Custody (MARC)

Factors affecting mortality of prisoners released in Queensland from 1994 to 2007.

MARC ICD coding

The MARC study analysis uses a customised ICD group coding based on Randall et. al. with some minor modifications.

Randall, D., Roxburgh, A., Gibson, A., & Degenhardt, L. (2009). Mortality among people who use illicit drugs: A toolkit for classifying major causes of death. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW.

Papers

Forsyth S.J., Alati R., Ober C., Williams G.M., Kinner S.A. Striking subgroup differences in substance-related mortality after release from prison. Addiction, 2014, DOI: 10.1111/add.12646.

van Dooren K, Kinner SA & Forsyth SJ. Risk of death for young ex-prisoners in the year following release from adult prison. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Aug 2013, 37(4), 377-382.

Kinner SA, Forsyth SJ, Williams GM. Systematic review of record linkage studies of mortality in ex-prisoners: why (good) methods matter. Addiction, Jan 2013, Volume 108, Issue 1, pages 38-49.

Andrews J, Kinner SA. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: A review of national coronial records. BMC Public Health, 2012, 12, 270.

Andrews JY, Forsyth S, Wade J, Kinner SA. Sensitivity of a national coronial database for monitoring unnatural deaths among ex-prisoners in Australia. BMC Research Notes, Oct 2011, 4:450.

Kinner, SA. Understanding mortality and health outcomes for ex-prisoners: First steps on a long road. Addiction, 2010, 105(9), 1555-1556.

Conferences, etc

Forsyth SJ, Kinner SA. Risk of Mortality at Community Re-entry. 6th Academic and Health Policy Conference on Correctional Health, Chicago USA, 21-23 March 2013.

Forsyth SJ, Kinner SA. A novel approach to identifying modifiable risk factors for unnatural mortality in ex-prisoners. 5th Academic and Health Policy Conference on Correctional Health, Atlanta USA, 22-23 March 2012.

Kinner SA, Forsyth SJ. Systematic Review of Record Linkage Studies of Mortality in Ex-Prisoners: Why Good Methods Matter. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Aug 2011, 65:32. IEA World Congress of Epidemiology, Edinburgh Scotland, 7-9 August 2011.

Van Dooren, K. Leaving Big Man's Jail: The health-related experiences of young people transitioning out of adult prison. University of Queensland, PhD thesis, 2011.

Kinner SA, Forsyth SJ, Andrews J. Impact of a prolonged heroin shortage on drug-related mortality in ex-prisoners. Australasian Mortality Data Interest Group Workshop: Improving, Investigating and Using Mortality Data, Melbourne, 18-19 November 2010.

Van Dooren K, Kinner, SA. Polymorbidity and mortality among justice-involved youth: Implications for re- entry. Paper presented at George Mason University Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy (CEBCP) Congressional Briefing on Juvenile Justice in the Age of the Second Chance Act, the Youth Promise Act, and the JJDP Reauthorization Bill: Research Guided Policy Implications for Maximizing Reentry Initiatives for Adolescents. 2010.

Van Dooren K, Kinner SA, Forsyth SJ. Young prisoners: a critical group for justice health research. International Network for Justice Health Conference, Arizona USA, 26-27 June 2010.

Kinner SA, Forsyth SJ. Passports and MARC projects Overview and preliminary findings. Department of Community Services, 2010.

Forsyth SJ, Kinner SA, Williams GM, Jamrozik K, Alati R. 2009. Post-release mortality among ex-prisoners in Queensland: A data linkage study. Public Health Association of Australia conference, Justice Health in Australia: Beyond the Convict Era - Meeting Challenges for the 21st Century, Melbourne Australia, 6-7 April 2009.

Data linkage texts

Handbook of record linkage: Methods for health and statistical studies, administration and business.
Newcombe HB. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Record linkage in medicine. Proceedings of the International Symposium, Edinburgh, July 1967.
Acheson ED (Ed). London: ES Livingstone, 1968.

Health statistics and record linkage in Australia.
Hobbs MST, McCall MG. J Chron Dis, 1970; 23:375-381.

Research use of linked data – a ‘best practice’ protocol.
Kelman CW, Bass AJ, Holman CDJ. ANZ J Public Health, 2002; 26:251-255;

Further reading

Kinner SA, Forsyth S, Williams G. Systematic review of record linkage studies of mortality in ex-prisoners: why (good) methods matter. Addiction. 2013 Nov 19.

Lim S, Seligson AL, Parvez FM, Luther CW, Mavinkurve MP, Binswanger IA, et al. Risks of Drug-Related Death, Suicide, and Homicide During the Immediate Post-Release Period Among People Released From New York City Jails, 2001-2005. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb 13.

Kariminia A, Butler T, Jones J, Law M. Increased mortality among Indigenous persons during and after release from prison in New South Wales. Aust N Z Publ Health. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2012 Jun;36(3):274-80.

Webb RT, Qin P, Stevens H, Mortensen PB, Appleby L, Shaw J. National study of suicide in all people with a criminal justice history. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;68(6):591-9.

Spaulding AC, Seals RM, McCallum VA, Perez SD, Brzozowski AK, Steenland NK. Prisoner survival inside and outside of the institution: implications for health-care planning. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Mar 1;173(5):479-87.

Leach D, Oliver P. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011 Dec;4(4):292-7.

Kinner SA, Preen DB, Kariminia A, Butler T, Andrews JY, Stoove M, et al. Counting the cost: estimating the number of deaths among recently released prisoners in Australia. Med J Aust. 2011 Jul 18;195(2):64-8.

Katelaris AG. Why are prisoners dying after they're released? Med J Aust. 2011 Jul 18;195(2):59.

Huang Y-F, Kuo H-S, Lew-Ting C-Y, Tian F, Yang C-H, Tsai T-I, et al. Mortality among a cohort of drug users after their release from prison: an evaluation of the effectiveness of a harm reduction program in Taiwan. Addiction. 2011:no-no.

Huang YF, Kuo HS, Lew-Ting CY, Tian F, Yang CH, Tsai TI, et al. Mortality among a cohort of drug users after their release from prison: an evaluation of the effectiveness of a harm reduction program in Taiwan. Addiction. 2011 Aug;106(8):1437-45.

Binswanger IA, Nowels C, Corsi KF, Long J, Booth RE, Kutner J, et al. "From the prison door right to the sidewalk, everything went downhill," a qualitative study of the health experiences of recently released inmates. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2011 Jul-Aug;34(4):249-55.

Binswanger IA, Blatchford PJ, Lindsay RG, Stern MF. Risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early deaths after release from prison in Washington state. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Aug 1;117(1):1-6.

Andrews JY, Forsyth S, Wade J, Kinner SA. Sensitivity of a national coronial database for monitoring unnatural deaths among ex-prisoners in Australia. BMC research notes. 2011;4:450.

Andrews JY, Forsyth S, Wade J, Kinner SA. Sensitivity of a national coronial database for monitoring unnatural deaths among ex-prisoners in Australia. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:450.

WHO. Prevention of acute drug-related mortality in prison populations during the immediate post-release period. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2010.

Moller LF, Matic S, van den Bergh BJ, Moloney K, Hayton P, Gatherer A. Acute drug-related mortality of people recently released from prisons. Public Health. 2010 Nov;124(11):637-9.

Moller LF, Matic S, van den Bergh BJ, Moloney K, Hayton P, Gatherer A. Acute drug-related mortality of people recently released from prisons. Public Health. 2010 Nov;124(11):637-9.

Merrall EL, Kariminia A, Binswanger IA, Hobbs MS, Farrell M, Marsden J, et al. Meta-analysis of drug-related deaths soon after release from prison. Addiction. 2010 Sep;105(9):1545-54.

Kinner SA. Commentary on Merrall et al. (2010): understanding mortality and health outcomes for ex-prisoners - first steps on a long road. Addiction. 2010 Sep;105(9):1555-6.

Kinner SA. Commentary on Merrall et al. (2010): understanding mortality and health outcomes for ex-prisoners - first steps on a long road. Addiction. 2010 Sep;105(9):1555-6.

Chen CY, Wu PN, Su LW, Chou YJ, Lin KM. Three-year mortality and predictors after release: a longitudinal study of the first-time drug offenders in Taiwan. Addiction. 2010 May;105(5):920-7.

Krinsky CS, Lathrop SL, Brown P, Nolte KB. Drugs, Detention, and Death A Study of the Mortality of Recently Released Prisoners. Am J Foren Med Path. 2009 Mar;30(1):6-9.

Rosen DL, Schoenbach VJ, Wohl DA. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among men released from state prison, 1980-2005. Am J Public Health. 2008 Dec;98(12):2278-84.

Farrell M, Marsden J. Acute risk of drug-related death among newly released prisoners in England and Wales. Addiction. 2008 Feb;103(2):251-5.

Darke S. From the can to the coffin: deaths among recently released prisoners. Addiction. 2008 Feb;103(2):256-7.

Spaulding AC, Allen SA, Stone A. Comment: Mortality after release from prison. N Engl J Med. 2007/04/27 ed2007. p. 1785; author reply 6-7.

Lindqvist P, Leifman A, Eriksson A. Mortality among homicide offenders: a retrospective population-based long-term follow-up. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2007;17(2):107-12.

Kariminia A, Law MG, Butler TG, Levy MH, Corben SP, Kaldor JM, et al. Suicide risk among recently released prisoners in New South Wales, Australia. Med J Aust. 2007 Oct 1;187(7):387-90.

Kariminia A, Law MG, Butler TG, Corben SP, Levy MH, Kaldor JM, et al. Factors associated with mortality in a cohort of Australian prisoners. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007;22(7):417-28.

Christensen P. Comment: extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners--1988 to 2002: a data-linkage study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr;36(2):317-8.

Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, Elmore JG, et al. Release from prison - a high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 11;356(2):157-65.

Kariminia A, Butler TG, Corben SP, Levy MH, Grant L, Kaldor JM, et al. Extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners--1988 to 2002: a data-linkage study. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr;36(2):310-6.

Hobbs M, Krazlan K, Ridout S, Mai Q, Knuiman M, Chapman R. Mortality and morbidity in prisoners after release from prison in Western Australia 19952003: Australian Institute of Criminology2006.

Christensen P, Hammerby E, Smith E, Bird SM. Mortality among Danish drug users released from prison. International Journal of Prisoner Health. 2006 March 2006;2(1).

Kariminia A, Butler T, Corben S, Kaldor J, Levy M, Law M. Mortality among prisoners: how accurate is the Australian National Death Index? Aust N Z J Public Health. 2005 Dec;29(6):572-5.

Freudenberg N, Daniels J, Crum M, Perkins T, Richie BE. Coming home from jail: The social and health consequences of community Reentry for women, male adolescents, and their families and communities. Am J Public Health. 2005 Oct;95(10):1725-36.

Farrell M, Marsden J. Drug-related mortality among newly released offenders 1998 to 2000: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate2005 Contract No.: Report 40/05.

Dolan KA, Shearer J, White B, Zhou JL, Kaldor J, Wodak AD. Four-year follow-up of imprisoned male heroin users and methadone treatment: mortality, re-incarceration and hepatitis C infection. Addiction. 2005 Jun;100(6):820-8.

Bjork T, Lindqvist P. Mortality among mentally disordered offenders: a community based follow-up study. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2005;15(2):93-6.

Stewart LM, Henderson CJ, Hobbs MS, Ridout SC, Knuiman MW. Risk of death in prisoners after release from jail. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2004 Feb;28(1):32-6.

Coffey C, Wolfe R, Lovett AW, Moran P, Cini E, Patton GC. Predicting death in young offenders: a retrospective cohort study. Med J Australia. 2004 Nov 1;181(9):473-7.

Verger P, Rotily M, Prudhomme J, Bird S. High mortality rates among inmates during the year following their discharge from a French prison. J Forensic Sci. 2003 May;48(3):614-6.

Singleton N, Pendry E, Taylor C, Farrell M, Marsden J. Drug-related mortality among newly released offenders report: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate2003.

Singleton N, Pendry E, Taylor C, Farrell M, Marsden J. Drug-related mortality among newly released offenders findings: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate2003 Contract No.: Findings 187.

Graham A. Post-prison Mortality: Unnatural Death Among People Released from Victorian Prisons Between January 1990 and December 1999. The Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Criminology. 2003;36(1):94-108.

Coffey C, Veit F, Wolfe R, Cini E, Patton GC. Mortality in young offenders: retrospective cohort study. Brit Med J. 2003 May 17;326(7398):1064-6.

Bird SM, Hutchinson SJ. Male drugs-related deaths in the fortnight after release from prison: Scotland, 1996-99. Addiction. 2003 Feb;98(2):185-90.

Sattar G. Rates and causes of death among prisoners and offenders under community supervision. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate2001. Report No.: 1840827610 (pbk.) Contract No.: no 231.

Putkonen H, Komulainen E, Virkkunen M, Lonnqvist J. Female homicide offenders have greatly increased mortality from unnatural deaths. Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Jun 15;119(2):221-4.

Shewan D, Hammersley R, Oliver J, MacPherson S. Fatal drug overdose after liberation from prison: A retrospective study of female ex-prisoners from Strathclyde region (Scotland). Addict Res. 2000;8(3):267-78.

Seymour A, Oliver JS, Black M. Drug-related deaths among recently released prisoners in the Strathclyde region of Scotland. J Forensic Sci. 2000 May;45(3):649-54.

Davies S, Cook S. Dying Outside: Women, Imprisonment And Post-Release Mortality. Women in Corrections: Staff and Clients Conference; Adelaide2000.

Biles D, Harding R, Walker J. The Deaths of Offenders Serving Community Corrections Orders: Australian Institute of Criminology1999 Contract No.: No. 107.

Seaman SR, Brettle RP, Gore SM. Mortality from overdose among injecting drug users recently released from prison: database linkage study. Brit Med J. 1998 Feb 7;316(7129):426-8.

Joukamaa M. The mortality of released Finnish prisoners; a 7 year follow-up study of the WATTU project. Forensic Sci Int. 1998 Aug 31;96(1):11-9.

Fleming J, Biles D, McDonald D, Australia. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody. Deaths in non-custodial corrections : Australia and New Zealand, 1987 and 1988. Parkes, A.C.T.: Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody; 1990.

Harding-Pink D, Fryc O. Risk of death after release from prison: a duty to warn. BMJ. 1988 Sep 3;297(6648):596.